What is Leukemia?

Leukemia is a clonal malignant disease caused by the abnormality of blood-forming stem cells. A large number of abnormal white blood cells, which have lost their ability of further differentiation and maturation and stay in different stages of cell development, are produced in bone marrow and other blood-forming tissues. These abnormal cells abundantly proliferate, accumulate and infiltrate other organs and tissues, meanwhile, inhibit the normal blood-forming functions. That is why leukemia patients always have symptoms like anemia, hemorrhage, infection and infiltration of other organs.

Incidence of Leukemia:

The incidence of leukemia accounts for a percentage of 2.5 among all the cancers. All over the world, about 47,150 people are diagnosed with leukemia every year, and 23,540 people die of leukemia yearly. Leukemia is the Top 1 pediatric cancer in incidence. Children between 0-4 years old are in the highest risk, and the incidences ratio between boys and girls is 7:5.

Common Types of Leukemia:
According to the source and morphological characteristics of the cells, leukemia can be divided into below types:
1、Acute myeloid leukemia: it is caused by the abnormal proliferation of myeloid white blood cells. It has the characteristic that abnormal cells in bone marrow rapidly proliferate affecting the production of normal blood cells.
2、Chronic myeloid leukemia: it is a clonal proliferative disease of blood-forming stem cells. Its major characteristics include bone marrow hyperplasia, peripheral blood leukocytes increase and enlargement of spleen.
3、Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: it is a kind of rapidly progressing leukemia caused when the lymphoblast uncontrollably proliferate and abnormally differentiate or its differentiation is obstructed, which result in formation of abundant immature white blood cells.
4、Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: it is a malignant cancer that affects lymph cells leading to immature differentiation of them. These immature lymph cells gather within bone marrow, inhibit its normal blood-forming function and spread in the body through blood.

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Leukemia Traditional Treatment Methods

  • Surgical treatmentSurgery to remove cancerous tissue and clean cervical lymph nodes that may have metastasis.

  • Radiation TherapyRadiation therapy for follicular adenocarcinoma.

  • chemotherapyOften used as palliative therapy for inoperable or distantly metastatic advanced cancer.

  • Chinese treatmentTraditional Chinese medicine therapy can inhibit the development of cancer, improve the immune function of patients with thyroid cancer, and reduce the toxic and side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Leukemia Treatment Technology
Radiofrequency Ablation
Radiofrequency ablation, sometimes referred to as RFA, is a minimally invasive treatment for cancer. It is an image-guided technique that heats and destroys cancer cells. Under the guidance of image,...
Drug-eluting bead transcatheter arterial chemoembolization
Drug-eluting beads transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) is an interventional therapy used in tumor treatment. It is a tiny sphere made of polymers or ceramics with a certain range of siz...
Cryotherapy, also named cryosurgery therapy or cryoablation, is a medical technique both ancient and modern....
Particle Knife
Particle knife (also called 125I Seed Implants) is applied to a variety of primary and metastatic tumors nowadays. 125I seeds are some small iodine radioactive particles that can give off short-range γ...
Nanoknife Technology
Nanoknife is a brand-new cutting-edge ablation technology for tumor treatment. It breaks the membrane of tumor cells with high voltage pulses from electrode probes, resulting in multiple irreversible n...
Interventional Therapy
Interventional Therapy
Interventional therapy is a mini-invasive therapy performed under the guidance of medical imaging equipments. With a 1-2 millimeter incision, paracentesis can be performed with the lead of medical imag...
Combined Knife
Combined Knife, it’s not actual surgical knife, but a composite cryogenic freezing surgical system, which conduct cold and heat ablation treatment with liquid-nitrogen by one or more ablation needles...
Leukemia Patients' Story
They come from different countries around the world, but they have experienced the same experience and endured the pain that cancer has brought to them. However, now, with the effective treatment and meticulous care of St. Stamford Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou, they have rekindled their confidence in life and become anti-cancer fighters. Here, they share their anti-cancer experience, love and warmth with everyone.
Minimally Invasive Tumor Integration Technique Saves My UterusEndometrial cancer
Ms. Liu

Ms. Liu was diagnosed with endometrioid carcinoma and doctor recommended her to remove the uterus. Bu...

Interventional treatment curbed the spread of prostate cancer and helped me get rid of the constraints of a urine catheter bagProstate cancer
Malaysiamore than 1 year

Mr.TING was diagnosed prostate cancer, the local doctor suggested him to undergo a direct resection, ...

Vietnamese esophageal cancer patient: minimally invasive treatment brings me a second lifeEsophageal cancer
Vietnammore than 2 years

PHAM DUC VIEN, a 56-year-old from Hanoi, Vietnam, was diagnosed with advanced esophageal cancer in De...

Successful Fight Against Cancer in A Patient with Lung Cancer Combined with Cardiovascular Disease in A Desperate SituationLung cancer
Ramli Rukiana

Ramli Rukiana from Batam, Indonesia, with a history of high-risk heart disease, was diagnosed with a ...

Face Life with a Smile and Beat Breast Cancer with Breast Reconstruction and Integrated Minimally Invasive Treatment!Breast Cancer
Malaysiamore than 5 years

Noraini, from Malaysia, was diagnosed with stage IIIB breast cancer accompanied by lymph node metasta...

The integrative minimally invasive treatment of tumor has allowed me to go from stage IV urethral adenocarcinoma to "healthy" as usual*Urachal adenocarcinoma
Tan Tanty Bintari
Indonesiamore than 2 years

Tan Tanty Bintari from Surabaya, Indonesia, was diagnosed with stage IV urethral adenocarcinoma due t...

Integrated minimally invasive tumor treatment eliminates my nasopharyngeal cancer while tumor is as big as an egg*Nasopharyngeal Cancer
Lukman Holy
IndonesiaMore than 2 years

"I am glad to have found St. Stamford Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou because the minimally invasive...

After triple-negative breast cancer recurred, integrating minimally invasive techniques helped me drive away the haze of despair!*Breast cancer

"Many desperate cancer patients are declared untreatable by local doctors, but you will see hope here...

Minimally Invasive Interventional Therapy Bringing a Hodgkin's Lymphoma Teenager Back to School*Hodgkin lymphoma

“St. Stamford Modern Cancer Hospital, brings hope and more choices to our whole family.” Recently...

Refusing Electrotherapy, Particle Implantation Lights My Way Against Cancer*Parotid gland cancer
Lau Bee Geok
Malaysiamore than 5 years

"A few days after the particle implantation, the tumor on my right cheek was significantly reduced in...

Minimally Invasive Interventional Treatment Successfully Preserved My Breasts for Over 8 Years*Breast Cancer
Indonesiamore than 8 years

On November 15, 2023, we held the activity themed "Come-Home Gala Of Anti-Cancer Stars In Belt And Ro...

After removing 3/4 of my stomach in Vietnam, minimally invasive comprehensive treatment gave me a new life*Gastric cancer
Nguyen Thanh Tung
Vietnammore than 6 years

Nguyen Thanh Tung, from Hanoi, Vietnam, when he appeared at the “2023 Anti-Cancer Star Volunteer Ba...

Interventional treatment allowed me to survive for 6 years and give birth to a child smoothly*Ovarian cancer
Winda Fitrianah Muchlis
Indonesiamore than 6 years

I am Winda Fitrianah Muchlis from Jakarta, Indonesia, currently 45 years old. Now that I am rosy-chee...

After nano-knife & interventional therapy, Vietnamese Buddhist master breaks the curse of "only 3 months survival of liver cancer"*Liver Cancer
VietnamSurvive for nearly 5 years

On November 15, 2023, during the event "The Come-home Gala of Anti-cancer Stars Belt and Road Holisti...

From stage II breast cancer to tumor disappearance, I have successfully defeated cancer for 12 years!*breast cancer
IndonesiaSurvive for more than 12 years

Indahwati Iwan from Surabaya, Indonesia, was diagnosed with stage II breast cancer (malignant tumor) ...

DEDI IRWAN SUGIANTO: Interventional Therapy, help me to fight against Hodgkin's lymphomaHodgkin's lymphoma
Surabaya, IndonesiaSurvive for more than 10 years

DEDI IRWAN SUGIANTO, comes from Indonesia, and was diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma. After taking a ...

Interventional Therapy Helps Indonesian Patients With Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Cancer Successfully Fight Cancer*Nasopharyngeal Cancer
Anni Ibriah
IndonesiaSurvive for more than 6 years

Anni Ibriah, comes from Indonesia, was diagnosed with stage IV nasopharyngeal cancer. She took treatm...

Interventional therapy combined with cryotherapy to tackle a big tumour like coconut*laryngeal cancer
Prasit Sumonta
Thailandmore than 8 years

"From the first admission to the hospital to the successful discharge from the hospital, it was almos...

Minimally invasive interventional therapy helped me survive for more than 8 years with stage IV cervical cancer*Cervical cancer
Fei Fei
Indonesiamore than 7 years

"I believe in God and be grateful for everything, even cancer. Since this is a necessary trial in my ...

Minimally Interventional Therapy + Particle Implantation Therapy, Successful eye preservation for over 6 years now*parotid gland cancer
Ms. Chen
Malaysiamore than 6 years

(Personal interview with Ms. Chen) On November 15, 2023, St. Stamford Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzho...

Song Shijun
Song Shijun
Chief Expert of Oncology Department | Chief physician

Specialty:Song Shijun, professor, chief physician, CPC member, has been engaged in clinical...


Liu Yuansheng
Liu Yuansheng
Minimally Invasive Dean, Integrative Medicine Chief Expert | Deputy Chief Physician

Specialty:He has been engaged in comprehensive minimally invasive Interventional Therapy of...


Peng Xiaochi
Peng Xiaochi
Director of Oncology Department | Chief Physician

Specialty:Peng Xiaochi, M.D., Ph.D. graduate in Canada, is a member of the Chinese Medica...


Dai Wenyan
Dai Wenyan
Director of Oncology Department of Oncology, Director of Breast Cancer Center | Associate Chief Physician

Specialty:She specializes in various minimally invasive treatments for tumors, especially c...


Ma Xiaoying
Ma Xiaoying
Director of Oncology Department | Associate Chief Physician

Specialty: Ma Xiaoying, more than 20 years experience of clinical work in oncology, and i...


 Lin Jing
Lin Jing
Deputy Director, International Oncology Ward |  Attending Physician

Specialty:Dr. Lin Jing has been engaged in clinical work in oncology for nearly 20 years an...


Wu Qingkai
Wu Qingkai
Chief doctor | Attending Doctor

Specialty:With cancer clinical experience for more than 30 years, Dr. Wu Qingkai has rich m...


Zhen Yanli
Zhen Yanli
Director of Radiology Department | Associate Chief Physician

Specialty:Dr. Zhen Yanli has been engaging in the work of surgical treatment, medical imagi...


Yin Pingshan
Yin Pingshan
Distinguished expert of TCM Oncology | Chief Physician

Specialty:| Introduction Engaged in clinical work in Traditional Chinese Medicine Internal ...


Zhao Yifan
Zhao Yifan
Oncology Resident | Physician-in-Charge

Specialty:Skilled in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of common solid tumors, speci...


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Leukemia Symptoms

Symptoms of Chronic Leukemia

1、In the early stages of chronic leukemia, symptoms may not appear for a long time, thus the patients cannot feel any discomfort. Doctors will usually find abnormal blood picture or splenomegaly (enlarged spleen) during a routine checkup or examinations for other diseases and then the patients are diagnosed with chronic leukemia.

2、When symptoms do appear, they are generally mild at first and progress gradually. Common symptoms of chronic leukemia may include: fatigue, low heat, excessive sweat or night sweats, weight loss for unknown reason, and hyperthyroidism, in addition, left upper abdominal distension and sensation of fullness after eating (due to enlarged spleen).

3、Patients with chronic leukemia often manifest as pale complexion, pale lips, and splenomegaly which is the most obvious symptom and which often has reached umbilical plane when patients visit a doctor, furthermore, tenderness in the lower part of sternum. Patients with advanced chronic leukemia will appear tiny red spots under the skin, mucous, and painless mass in the tissues of eye sockets and skull.

Symptoms of Acute Leukemia

1、Anemia: hematopoietic abnormalities of bone marrow leads to low number of both red blood cells and hemoglobin, thus anemia will be developed and half of the patients can develop severe anemia.

2、Fever: leukemia itself can cause fever, furthermore, due to decreased immunity, once pathogens invading body, thus it tends to cause infection and results in fever.

3、Bleeding: due to stasis and infiltration of the large number of leukemia cells in blood vessels, low number of platelets, coagulation abnormalities and infection, patients will appear scattered red spots, purpura or petechia from head to foot, nosebleed, gingival bleeding or excessive menstruation, furthermore, blurred vision resulting from fundus hemorrhage, coma and even death due to intracranial hemorrhage can be caused.

4、Gastrointestinal failure: it can result from agents used in chemotherapy and radiation therapy which will affect gastrointestinal function.

5、Hyperuricemia: it can be caused by chemotherapy, radiotherapy and application of cortical hormone, what’s more, with high concentration of uric acid supersaturated soon and precipitated, oliguria and anuria will be caused by extensive damage of kidney and the formation of uric acid stones.

Symptoms of Leukemia in Children

Symptoms of early leukemia in Children are pale complexion, fatigue, lassitude, loss of appetite, nasal bleeding or bleeding gums, etc.; few patients firstly manifest as fever and bone joint pain which is similar to rheumatic fever.

1、Anemia: it appears early and aggravates progressively, besides, it manifests as pale complexion, weakness, shortness of breath after activity, and tachycardia (too fast heartbeat).

2、Fever: it often occurs with uncertain types and mostly is irregular fever with no shivering. Leukemia fevers mostly manifest as low heat and antibiotic treatment is ineffective; secondary infections (respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infection, etc.) mostly are high heat.

3、Bleeding: main reasons of bleeding are firstly, leukemia cell infiltration thus bone marrow megakaryocyte will be inhibited, causing low number of platelet; secondly, impaired liver function causes insufficient production of fibrinogen, thrombinogen and accelerin; thirdly, capillary permeability increases. Most of bleeding occurs in the skin and mucous membrane, manifesting as purpura, petechia, nosebleed, gingival bleeding, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and hematuria, in addition, occasionally intracranial hemorrhage which is one of the important causes of death.

To know and identify the symptoms of leukemia can help patients detect it early and then get treatment in time.

For more knowledge about cancer, please click online doctors for consultation. 

Leukemia Diagnosis

What are detections for leukemia? Most people are inclined to know the detections of leukemia, for that can help to find out related symptoms and perform treatments in time.

Common Detections Of Leukemia

1、Blood routine examination. It is to take a little blood from finger or ear lobe to check the quantity of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelet, meanwhile to classify the white blood cells. Normally, juvenile blood cells (for short is juvenile cells) should not appear in peripheral blood. But when someone is suffering from leukemia, juvenile cells can be seen in blood routine test for they are released to peripheral blood while they are not differentiated and mature enough in bone marrow.

2、Routine examination for bone marrow. If it is suspected to have leukemia, bone marrow puncture test is necessary to count and classify all kinds of cells from bone marrow. Normally juvenile cells take not over 5% in bone marrow. But when one develops leukemia, his juvenile cells can increase at most 30% more, especially for acute leukemia of children, that can reach 80- more in bone marrow.

Bone marrow examination is a most weightily proof to diagnose leukemia. It is not difficult to detect leukemia by combing with clinical signs and physical examinations when this bone marrow examination indicating an obvious increase of juvenile cells in bone marrow. However, treatments would be different as the types of leukemia vary. Then further examinations should be taken to confirm the type of leukemia.

1、Immune typing examination. It generally has to take around 2 ml bone marrow to identify and classify the leukemia cells with a reagent named clonal antibody.

2、Cytogenetic examination. This examination also has to take about 2 ml bone marrow to know if any abnormality of leukemia essence and chromosomes. The prognosis usually would be poorer to the leukemia patients with chromosome disorder than those without chromosome abnormality.

3、Examination of cerebrospinal fluid is to confirm if leukemia cells encroach on brain and spinal system by drawing out a little cerebrospinal fluid from lumbar spinal canal of patient for chemical examination. If being encroached, that is what medically called leukemia of central nervous system.

Specialist from St. Stamford Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou figured out that, except what mentioned above, there are X-ray examination (including chest X-ray, skull X-ray and bone X-rays of limbs and so on) examination of ocular fundus, ECG(electrocardiogram), ultrasonic examination of liver and spleen, blood biochemistry, immune functions, related virus examination and so on. All those examinations can indicate that whether the main organs of patient are working normally and if any encroachment of leukemia cells occurs, which at the same time are the preparation and direction for further treatments.

For more knowledge about cancer, please click online doctors for consultation. 

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