What is penile cancer?
Penile cancer as one of the most common malignant tumors in male reproductive system, it mainly presents as squamous cancer, basal cell cancer with the main symptoms including redundant prepuce, phimosis, prepuce balanitis and ulcer of penis. Adenocarcinoma are rare.
What is the incidence of penile cancer?
Penile cancer mainly develops in old males with the average age around 60 years old. As age increases, the incidence is higher and would reach the highest point at 70 years old. Occasionally, it develops in young men too.
What causes penile cancer?
Although the causes of penile cancer are unclear, according to clinic observation and statistics, the onset is related to phimosis and redundant prepuce.
What are the clinical symptoms of penile cancer?
Tumor occurring in balanus or ulcer, which in early stage can be hard mass or erythema, is hard to recover. Other typical cases may present cauliflower-like tumor with necrotic appearance and smelly exudates. When it develops to late stage, penile cancer can encroach to the whole penis and corpus cavernosum urethrae, accompanied with other symptom like swelling lymph nodes in inguinal groove and femur.
Self examination for penile cancer
Specialist from Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou advised that, male can have a check on penis when taking a shower so as to find the lesions early. The exact procedures are: take a rotation on both sides of penis with forefinger and thumb, if enlargement, swelling, mild pain or a heavy feeling in inguinal grooves is found, rapid and further examination should be performed by specialist in hospital.
How to detect penile cancer?
Imaging examination: lymphography can help to diagnose metastases certainly, but normally it won’t be taken as routine examination. Perform the contrast radiography of intralymphatic injection through insteps of feet, penis and spermatic cord, signs like irregular lymph nodes, filling defect of lymph nodes, deformation, depression or blockage of lymphatic vessels would present if metastases exist.
Ultrasound B can find out any metastasis in liver and abdominal cavity.
CT, MRI can detect if penile cancer spreads to retroperitoneum, other organs and other parts of body.
Other examinations: When the tumor only has hard sclerosis and is without ulceration, and if is being covered by prepuce, circumcision can be given to expose the tumor. Then through local tissue biopsy, caner can be diagnosed. Biopsy is the most important proof in histological diagnosis . Take the biopsy of primary cancer can firmly diagnose the histological type and stage of cancer. The biopsy of inguinal lymph nodes can exactly detect the spread of cancer, which helps doctor to plan out treatment clinically.
What is the meaning of penile cancer biopsy?
Biopsy is a standard diagnostic method of squamous cell carcinoma of penis. Biopsy offers useful information to cancer staging and histological classification. It can confirm the small lesions and encroaching depth. The bigger tumors are, the easier to judge infiltration degree through check-up and imaging examinations. Combing these scattered information together would help to stage cancer correctly, and to judge the possibility of microcosmic metastases without obvious clinical cancer metastatic symptoms (namely, to touch metastatic lymph nodes).
How does penile cancer spread?
Penile cancer is a malignant cancer threatening male health. Early detection and treatments are the key to prevent it from spreading. There are three ways for penile cancer to spread.
Local spread, the cancer spreads in circumcrescent way from glans to the root of penis, which can further encroach to fascia penis, corpus cavernosum, even to scrotum, lower abdominal wall and urethra.
Lymph spread. The most common position to develop penile cancer metastases is inguinal lymph nodes.
Blood spread, it often spreads to lungs, liver, and after that are bones and brain.
What are the treatments for penile cancer?
Surgery. Because the penile tumor in early stage is small and does not spread, surgery would clinically perform to remove the tumor. Chemotherapy gets good cure effect on penile cancer, which cooperates with surgery can improve cure effect.
Radiotherapy for penile cancer can take as assistant treatment after surgery to improve cure effect.
Minimally invasive therapy can effectively kill cancer cells and prevent the spread and recurrence of cancer. It gets the advantages of non surgery and minimum bleeding.
Characterized therapy of Chinese medicine: Through years of researches and studies, traditional Chinese medicine can regulate the balance of body and strengthen the resistance to fight against tumor. Combine the advantages of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine, the cure effect then is better than any single one of them. Besides, Chinese medicine does not have toxic side effects and traumas in treating penile cancer. Post operative care of penile cancer
One week after operation: One week after operation is a time most easily for patient to develop the symptoms like wound bleeding and infection and so on, so the patient should avoid filling blood in penis, erection, straining at stool or getting off bed early and so on.
Diet care: The patient can choose the food that are easy for digestion and keeps away from the food that would lead to increase of androgen, such as animal organs, the foods rich in zinc(poyster, beef), arginine(eel, cat fish, mudfish or holothuroids), or calcium(dried small shrimps, beans), etc.
Prevention of wound infection: Except antibiotics to prevent wound infection, cleaning of perineum should be done every day. Family members should protect the patient from dressing pollution. Once patient’s dressing is soaked with urine or stained by stools, change it timely.
Care after operation: The greatest impact of operation to penile cancer patient’s life quality is mental after discharge. Because operation changes the appearance and shortens the length of penis, which would easily cause mental unbalance and make the patient lose confidence in sexual life. For the patients who have removed penis completely, their mates can help them to get mental satisfaction through touch, hug, kiss or other skin touch.