Anal Cancer

What is anal cancer?

Anal cancer is a malignant tumor that occurs in the squamous epithelium of the anal canal. Usually closely related to human papilloma virus infection. Anal squamous cell carcinoma often causes discomfort and itching in the anal area. There is a small, slow-growing lump on the edge of the anus. The pain is very mild, and there is pain when the anal canal or sphincter is invaded. Ulcers are formed after a long course of disease, and the local area is tender, and the secretion is thin and often mixed with bloodshot eyes. There are gray-white necrotic tissue at the bottom of the ulcer, and the periphery is everted and granular nodules, and it is easy to scab and bleed. At present, the incidence of anal cancer is relatively low, but it is increasing year by year.

So can middle and late-staged anal cancer be treated? The minimally invasive technique with less side effects and less trauma can help anal cancer patients avoid surgical resection, avoid the pain of traditional radiotherapy and chemotherapy, effectively prolong the survival period and improve the quality of life.

For more knowledge about cancer, please click online doctors for consultation.

Anal Cancer Traditional Treatment Methods

  • Surgical treatmentSurgery to remove cancerous tissue and remove. Cervical lymph nodes that may have metastasized

  • Radiation TherapyRadiation therapy for follicular adenocarcinoma;

  • chemotherapyOften used as palliative therapy for inoperable or distantly metastatic advanced cancer

  • Chinese treatmentTraditional Chinese medicine therapy can inhibit the development of cancer, improve the immune function of patients with thyroid cancer, and reduce the toxic and side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Anal Cancer Treatment Technology
Interventional Therapy
Interventional Therapy
Interventional therapy is a mini-invasive therapy performed under the guidance of medical imaging equipments. With a 1-2 millimeter incision, paracentesis can be performed with the lead of medical imaging equipment.
Combined Knife
Combined Knife, it’s not actual surgical knife, but a composite cryogenic freezing surgical system, which conduct cold and heat ablation treatment with liquid-nitrogen by one or more ablation needles, it’s called combined knife because of its accuracy.
Photodynamic Therapy
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment that uses a drug, called a photosensitizer or photosensitizing agent, and a particular type of light.
Anal Cancer Patients' Story
They come from different countries around the world, but they have experienced the same experience and endured the pain that cancer has brought to them. However, now, with the effective treatment and meticulous care of St. Stamford Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou, they have rekindled their confidence in life and become anti-cancer fighters. Here, they share their anti-cancer experience, love and warmth with everyone.
Comprehensive Minimally Invasive Treatment Helps an 18-year-old Indonesian Boy with T-cell Lymphoma Successfully Fight CancerLymphoma
IndonesiaSurvive for more than 6 years

"In 2016, I started to feel pain in my lower limbs during my running exercise, which spread to my low...

Minimally invasive treatment helps him beat rectal cancer as 10cm tumor disappearsRectal Cancer
IndonesianSurvive for more than 7 years

HENDRY ANGGLES, a stage IV rectal cancer patient from Indonesia, came to Modern Cancer Hospital Guang...

Interventional Therapy Gives a New Life to a Thai with Lung Cancer Lung cancer
Ms. Manussawan
ThailandSurvive for more than 3 years

“Hearing the news of China’s reopening, I immediately made up my mind to come back for a follow-u...

Patient with 5-year Liver Cancer Felt The Beauty of Life  Again Given by St.Stamford Modern Cancer Hospital GuangzhouLiver cancer
Mr. Xie
MalaysiaSurvive for more than 5 years

"I am the first Southeast Asian who came to the hospital for treatment after the Covid-19 pandemic" s...

Tumor still remains inside the 81-year-old body after 5 sessions of chemotherapy, but killed by Combined Knife treatment lung cancer
Mr. Sun
ChinaSurvive for more than 2 years

It’s approaching the time for ward round of doctors in the morning, however, Mr. Sun from Oncology...

Combined Knife: A Raised Sword Accurately Inactivates the 10CM Tumorspindle cell sarcoma
Ms. Li
ChinaSurvive for more than 5 years

On March 7, led by Dai Wenyan, the director of the 1st Oncology Department in our hospital, with the ...

With Minimally Invasive Treatment,a 64-year-old Rectal Cancer Patient Was Reborn!Colorectal cancer
IndonesiaSurvive for more than 6 years

The 64 years old man, he wears a black bowler hat, hale and hearty, and his smiling eyes are glitteri...

Cancer Patients Shared Their Experience: Comprehensive Minimally Invasive Therapy Let Us Move Forward on the Journey of Fighting Cancerstomach cancer
IndonesiaSurvive for more than 8 years

According to the statistics of the Health Department of Malaysia in 2018, the incidence rate of stoma...

Treatment stories of female cancer patients: minimally invasive therapies freed us from the sufferings caused by traditional therapiesbreast cancer
Ms. Chen
MalaysiaSurvive for more than 9 years

According to the statistics of the WHO, the incidence rate of breast cancer in Malaysia in 2020 was 3...

Minimally Invasive Therapy Helps New Mother Win the Battle against Breast Cancer*Breast Cancer
IndonesiaSurvive for more than 5 years

SAIDAH, comes from Indonesia, was diagnosed with stage IIIB breast cancer. In local hospital, she got...

Minimally Invasive Therapy Benefit A Malaysian Gallbladder Cancer Patient in His Seventies*Gallbladder Cancer
MalaysiaSurvive for more than 5 years

ONG LEE SING, 72 years comes from Malaysia. He was diagnosed with well-differentiated adenocarcinoma ...

Vietnamese Liver Cancer Patient Grateful for St. Stamford Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou*Liver Cancer
VietnamSurvive for more than 4 years

VO VAN HOA, 55 years old, comes from Vietnam. He was diagnosed with primary liver cancer of stage III...

70-year-old Man Fight Cancer with Minimally Invasive Therapy*non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
IndonesiaSurvive for more than 4 years

HENKY TJANDRA, comes from Indonesia, was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in May, 2019. In St. S...

Minimally Invasive Therapy Creates 12-year Breast Cancer Survivor*Breast Cancer
IndonesiaSurvive for more than 16 years

CARINA, diagnosed with breast cancer, was treated with comprehensive therapy in local hospital. After...

Minimally Invasive Therapy: A Better Choice for Stage IV Ovarian Cancer Patient*Ovarian Cancer
PhilippinesSurvive for more than 5 years

ERLINDA FRANCISCO, 73 years old, comes from Cebu, the Philippines. In March, 2019, she was diagnosed ...

Vietnamese esophageal cancer patient: I have confidence in minimally invasive treatment*Esophageal Cancer
VietnamSurvive for more than 5 years

Vietnamese patient DAM VAN HOE was diagnosed with esophageal cancer in November 2018 with liver, medi...

Interventional Therapy-An Ideal Option for Advanced Lymphoma Patient*Lymphoma
IndonesiaSurvive for more than 5 years

MICHAEL SANJAYA IRAWAN, 22 years old, comes from Surabaya, Indonesia. In 2018, he was diagnosed with ...

Surgery is not the Only Resolution for Endometrial Cancer*Endometrial Cancer
IndonesiaSurvive for more than 5 years

YATI, comes from Indonesia, was diagnosed with endometrial cancer. In 2018, she arrived at St. Stamfo...

Minimally Invasive Therapy Offers Better Option for Lung Cancer Patient*Lung Cancer
Nguyen Van Chuyen
VietnamSurvive for more than 5 years

Nguyen Van Chuyen, 55 years old, comes from Vietnam. He is a cancer patient suffering stage IIIA lung...

With 4 months minimally invasive therapy, stage 3B thymic carcinoma reduced to 1cm*thymus cancer
IndonesiaSurvive for more than 5 years

fter confirmation in St. Stamford Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou, TARUMA TRIBUDIMAN was diagnosed a...

Liu Yuansheng
Liu Yuansheng
Minimally Invasive Dean, Integrative Medicine Chief Expert | Deputy Chief Physician

Specialty:He has been engaged in comprehensive minimally invasive Interventional Therapy of...


Song Shijun
Song Shijun
Chief Expert of Oncology Department | Chief physician,

Specialty:Song Shijun, professor, chief physician, CPC member, has been engaged in clinical...


Pan Xiaofeng
Pan Xiaofeng
Attending Physician, International Oncology Ward | Attending Physician

Specialty:He specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of various hematologic malignancies...


Dong Kui
Dong Kui
Attending Physician, International Oncology Ward | Oncologist

Specialty:Dong Kui has been engaged in internal medicine for more than 4 years and is exper...


 Lin Jing
Lin Jing
Deputy Director, International Oncology Ward |  Attending Physician

Specialty:Dr. Lin Jing has been engaged in clinical work in oncology for nearly 20 years an...


Ma Yumei
Ma Yumei
Physician-in-Charge | Oncologist

Specialty:Ma Yumei has been engaged in the clinical work of gynecological oncology treatmen...


Peng Xiaochi
Peng Xiaochi
Director of International Oncology Ward | Chief Physician

Specialty:Peng Xiaochi, M.D., Ph.D. graduate in Canada, is a member of the Chinese Medica...


Zhao Yifan
Zhao Yifan
Oncology Resident, Ward 8 | Physician-in-Charge

Specialty:Skilled in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of common solid tumors, speci...


Shen Shiheng
Shen Shiheng
Oncology Resident, Ward 8 | Physician-in-Charge

Specialty:Diagnosis and comprehensive treatment of various common solid tumors....


Zhai Xueli
Zhai Xueli
Attending Physician, Oncology 7th Floor Ward | Attending Physician

Specialty:Personal Profile:more than 10 years experience of clinical work in oncology, memb...


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Medical reports*
Anal Cancer Symptoms

What are the causes of anal cancer?

Causes of anal cancer are still not defined, but some studies showed that some factors may be associated with anal cancer, which include: Human papillomavirus (HPV), sexual activity, smoking, HIV infection, anal benign disease and others.

Anal Cancer Symptoms

Anal cancer is a kind of malignant tumor which usually occurs inside anus. Causes of anal cancer are still not defined, but some studies showed that some factors may be associated with anal cancer, which include: Human papillomavirus (HPV), sexual activity, smoking, HIV infection, anal benign disease and others.

Experts from Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou pointed out that although anal cancer is a kind of less common disease but people should still pay attention to it. We should know and understand anal cancer so as to detect it early.

Types of Anal Cancer

In accordance with the difference of onset parts of anal cancer, it can be classified into the following types: cancer in situ, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, basal cell cancer and malignant melanoma, lymphoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST).

Cancer in situ: some anal superficial cells look very abnormal, like cancer cells;

Squamous cell carcinoma: tumor from squamous cells in the anal margin and most of the anal canal.

Adenocarcinoma: it originates from the gland that release anal secretions and is below anal mucous membrane or from the apocrine gland as well (a perianal skin gland that secrets sweat).

Basal cell cancer: it occurs around the perianal skin or other skin parts that are regularly exposed to the sun, such as face and hands, but it is rare to occur in the anus.

Malignant melanoma: it refers to the tumor developed by the anus skin cells that contain melanin, and there are only about 1-2% of anal cancers are melanomas.

Symptoms of Anal Cancer

There is symptom like anorectal bleeding;

The anal area would feel uncomfortable and abnormal itchy.

There will be small lumps around anal margin, and they grow slow.

There are changes in bowel habits, and the shape of the stool becomes thinner.

Lymph glands around the anus or groin become swollen.

There is a slight pain around anus, and the pain gets worse when the tumor invades into the anal canal or sphincter.

Experts from St. Stamford Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou remind you that if you have the following symptoms, please go to regular hospital for examination and treatment.

For more knowledge about cancer, please click online doctors for consultation. 

Anal Cancer Diagnosis

Anal cancer is a kind of malignant tumor as a result of anal cells canceration, which mainly occurs in anal tube or anal margin skin. Hematochezia, pain, bowel evacuation habit change and anal foreign body sensation are symptoms of early anal cancer, which are similar to symptoms of common diseases such as internal hemorrhoids and anal fissure and result in clinical misdiagnosis. Therefore, if those symptoms occur, it’s better to have anal routine examination and even take anal cancer screening if necessary.

How is anal cancer diagnosed?

1. Digital rectal exam

This exam has two parts which include the check for the anus and the inside of it. If you have symptoms of rectal bleeding or feeling of lumps,you can take this exam.

(1)The way to check the anus: the doctor will touch the anal area with gloved finger to feel for solid callus or lump, and check if there are other abnormalities like tenderness, fluctuation or anus fistula.

(2) The way to check the inside of the anus (Digital Anus Exam): Inserting a gloved, lubricated finger into the anus and rectum to feel for lumps or other abnormalities. If you have symptoms like rectal bleeding please take the exam in time.

2. Endoscopy

Endoscopy can be used to look for the cause of the anal problems and inner part of the rectum. For this test, you either lie on your side on an examining table, with your knees bent up to your chest, or you bent forward over the table. Endoscopy has different types include anoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. When you have bowl movement change, you can take this test to find out the cause.

3. Biopsy

Biopsy can often be done through the scope itself. If cancer is present, the pathologist will describe the cell type and extent of the cancer in the report. If the tumor is very small, and the growth happens on the surface of anus, your doctor might try to remove the entire tumor during the biopsy.

4. Chest X-ray: it is the first step of in vitro metastasis examination of anal cancer. If there is no abnormality in chest X-ray, it is less possibility of anal cancer metastasis. If there is abnormality in chest X-ray, detailed examinations are recommended.

5. Computed Tomography: CT examination can detect the tumor’s size, location and form and enlarged lymph nodes as well as metastasizing tumor. When lump and lymph nodes enlargement occur, that examination is recommended.

Oncologists of St. Stamford Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou advise that anal cancer should be treated in normal hospital as earlier as possible.

For more knowledge about cancer, please click online doctors for consultation. 

Anal Cancer Staging
Anal Cancer Medical Reports